This post is not a list of tips for producing slides to support a presentation (maybe I’ll do a post on that some other time). Instead, it is a reflection on a pair of essays by Edward Tufte and Jean-Luc Doumont.
I read and enjoyed Edward Tufte’s essay The Cognitive Style of Powerpoint: Pitching Out Corrupts Within. It is a hard-hitting critique of the “pitch culture” that turns all presentations into a series of bullet lists. I wanted to require it for my fall senior design class (which is largely about “soft” skills, such as team formation, management, verbal presentation, and writing), but I had a hard time justifying making the students pay $7 for a 32-page essay. Instead I required the free 6-page excerpt from the essay on Tufte’s web site that catches some of the main ideas, though it is not as well-crafted as the complete essay. One of the main points that Tufte makes is that the choppy, bullet-list format encouraged by slides is destructive to longer narratives and connected thoughts, and that sentences and paragraphs are not evil. Not in the excerpt is Tufte’s analysis of the spoof of the Gettysburg Address by Peter Norvig.
Edward Tufte is famous for his self-published books, particularly the first one, Visual Display of Quantitative Information, which is perhaps the best book around on presenting data graphically. It should be required reading for every scientist, math teacher, science teacher, and journalist. Edward Tufte also gives one-day workshops based on his books. I’ve never been to one, but some of the grad students in my department have (Tufte gives a huge student discount: they get the seminar plus four of his books for just the price of the books). The students report that he gives awesome seminars also, well worth the time and the money.
So Tufte’s credentials as a presenter of data are very, very solid, and people paid a lot of attention to his polemic against PowerPoint. Perhaps too much so, as his criticism seems mainly directed at the use of slides to replace tech reports, which they clearly cannot replace.
Jean-Luc Doumont has written a good rebuttal to Tufte: “The Cognitive Style of PowerPoint: Slides Are Not All Evil” (Technical Communication, 52(1), 64–70, Feb 2005), which Amazon sells for $6. Doumont also gives a good seminar on presentation (I’ve heard the one-hour version), and so I respect his opinions also. I got permission from Doumont to distribute his rebuttal to Tufte to my class, but I put it up on a secure server behind password protection. It seems that other teachers either asked for more permission, or have less respect for authors’ copyrights, as the PDF file can be found on-line with a Google search (and not at Doumont’s own website, where it would be if he had truly meant for it to be distributed freely).
Doumont’s main point is that Tufte missed the point of slides:
Three commonsense considerations related to purpose thus invalidate much of Tufte’s case against the use of slides:
- Oral presentations typically have a different purpose than written documents (different even than companion documents).
- Slides in oral presentations are viewed while the presenter is speaking, not read in silence like written documents.
- Tables and graphs, too, may serve a range of purposes, from analysis by oneself to communication to an audience.
The slides should support the speaker, not replace him or her. Both authors agree that (in Doumont’s words) “presentation slides do not double up effectively as [a] presentation handout,” because what is effective as a presentation aid is too terse to be of much use as a standalone document, and a useful standalone document is too wordy to be of much use as a presentation aid. I teach students that the purpose of an oral presentation is as an advertisement for the written document: to make the listeners aware of the ideas and interested enough to want to know more. There should be just a handful of take-home messages from an oral presentation—trying to pack all the information of a detailed technical paper into a talk results in the listener coming away with nothing.
Doumont also criticizes Tufte for conflating the tool PowerPoint and the slides produced with it—many of the bad things Tufte points out are the fault of the presenters, not of the tool they used. His criticism here is perhaps a little too protective of Microsoft, as some of the common flaws that Tufte points out are indeed encouraged by the tool (PowerPoint provides many very bad templates). Still, Doumont’s point is well-taken: it is possible to do good presentations with PowerPoint, even if it is not as easy as making bad ones.
Note: to create his own presentations, Doumont does not use PowerPoint, but uses with an idiosyncratic macro package, not a style many people will find easy to copy. I also use , with the prosper package in , using Adobe Reader to present the resulting PDF files. This is the only way I’ve found to include decent math formulas in presentations, something I often need to do. (There are other slide styles, but I’ve been reasonably happy with prosper, and I was not at all happy with the original SliTeX program.)