I started today with the physics formulas for the field in a solenoid and for the voltage as the field changes. We ended up with the , with a rather messy constant, which I declared that we would call inductance and symbolize with an L. I also told the students that they wouldn’t need to know how to compute L from first principles, since this wasn’t a physics class. We then looked at what would happen if we put a sinusoid into an inductor, and got the classic for inductors, which I told the students to memorize.

We then got out laptops to do a hands-on tutorial on gnuplot. I walked them through using gnuplot to plot the impedance of an inductor, then what happens if we put a resistor in series or in parallel (talking them through the DC and ∞ frequency asymptotes before we looked at each plot). We figured out the corner frequency , which I did not point out is equivalent to an time constant. We did high-pass and low-pass voltage dividers, then started looking at inductors and capacitors in parallel or in series. We did the algebra for the infinite impedance of an LC parallel circuit when . We ended the modeling of inductor circuits with an R || L || C circuit, which they had correctly reasoned would have 0 impedance at 0 Hz and ∞ Hz, and a maximum of R at .

Here is the script that was built as we did the exploration:

set logscale x set xlabel "frequency [Hz]" unset key set logscale y set ylabel "impedance [ohms]" j=sqrt(-1) Zc(f,C) = 1/(j*2*pi*f*C) # f= frequency [Hz], C=cap [farads] Zl(f,L) = j*2*pi*f*L Zpar(z1,z2) = z1*z2/(z1+z2) divider(Zup,Zdown) = Zdown/(Zup+Zdown) set xrange[1:1e6] set yrange[*:*] # plot impedance of 1 milliHenry in parallel with 10ohms # plot 10, abs(Zl(x,1e-3)), abs(Zpar(Zl(x, 1e-3),10)) # set ylabel "gain" # plot abs(divider(Zl(x,1e-3),10)) # plot impedance of 1 milliHenry in parallel with 1uF # plot abs(Zc(x,1e-6)), abs(Zl(x,1e-3)), abs(Zpar(Zl(x, 1e-3),Zc(x,1e-6))) # plot impedance of 1 milliHenry in series with 1uF #plot abs(Zc(x,1e-6)), abs(Zl(x,1e-3)), abs(Zl(x, 1e-3)+Zc(x,1e-6)) # set ylabel "gain" # plot abs(divider(Zc(x,1e-6),Zl(x,1e-3))) # plot impedance of 1 milliHenry in parallel with 1uF and 10 ohms plot abs(Zc(x,1e-6)), abs(Zl(x,1e-3)), abs(Zpar(10,Zpar(Zl(x, 1e-3),Zc(x,1e-6))))

I then switched tracks back to modeling the loudspeaker. If you want to try your hand at modeling the data, it is available on the class web site as 10W-loudspeaker-47ohm-more.data, but Windows users may have to cut and paste from the browser and use a different file name, since Windows is very fussy about having an extraneous carriage-return character on every line and not allowing arbitrary extensions (try .txt instead of .data).

I copied the boilerplate (definitions of j, Zl, Zc, Zpar, and divider) into the loudspeaker gnuplot script we’d been working on, and started trying to model the loudspeaker. We had left off last time modeling it as a constant resistance of 8 ohms, so we tried adding an inductor. (I managed to get them to tell me that the inductor had to be in series, because it was increasing the impedance.) Even without doing any fitting, we had a good initial model (8Ω in series with 100µH):

After that we did a quick look at the resonance peak, which (with a little prompting) they recognized as being like the LC parallel circuit and needing to be in series with the model so far. I estimated values of L and C for them by zooming in to determine the frequency of the peak (around 148Hz, so ω around 865kHz, or LC=1.16E-6 sec)—we started with 1mH and 1000µF as being in the right ballpark for LC. That gave us a huge spike of infinite impedance, and I gradually got them to remember the R||L||C curve we had before. Again, I helped them out by zooming in and noting that the peak was around 23Ω, about 15Ω more than the baseline.

The resulting model had too narrow a peak in not quite the right place, so we did a fit and got a very nice result:

Rnom = 7.52275 Ω (nominal resistance)

Lhi = 0.000328722 H (series inductance)

Resonance peak (all three in parallel and the result in series with Rnom and Lhi):

Ls = 0.00297396 H

Cs = 0.000386845 F

Rs = 15.609 Ω

The script that we used for doing the fit:

set logscale y set ylabel "impedance [ohms]" Rknown = 47.171 j=sqrt(-1) Zc(f,C) = 1/(j*2*pi*f*C) # f= frequency [Hz], C=cap [farads] Zl(f,L) = j*2*pi*f*L Zpar(z1,z2) = z1*z2/(z1+z2) divider(Zup,Zdown) = Zdown/(Zup+Zdown) Ls=1e-3 Cs=1e-3 Rs=15 Rnom=8 Lhi=1e-4 fit abs(Rnom+Zl(x,Lhi)+Zpar(Rs,Zpar(Zl(x,Ls),Zc(x,Cs)))) \ '10W-loudspeaker-47ohm-more.data' using 1:($3/$2*Rknown) \ via Ls,Cs,Rs,Rnom,Lhi Lhi=abs(Lhi) fit abs(Rnom+Zl(x,Lhi)+Zpar(Rs,Zpar(Zl(x,Ls),Zc(x,Cs)))) \ '10W-loudspeaker-47ohm-more.data' using 1:($3/$2*Rknown) \ via Ls,Cs,Rs,Rnom,Lhi plot '10W-loudspeaker-47ohm-more.data' using 1:($3/$2*Rknown), \ abs(Rnom+Zl(x,Lhi)+Zpar(Rs,Zpar(Zl(x,Ls),Zc(x,Cs))))

Unfortunately, the fit was done with the window zoomed in and no explicit xrange command, and rerunning the script on a fresh gnuplot does not produce this nice result.

We can fix the problem by doing a fit for everything but Lhi in a narrow window, then fitting Lhi:

fit [100:300] abs(Rnom+Zl(x,Lhi)+Zpar(Rs,Zpar(Zl(x,Ls),Zc(x,Cs)))) \ '10W-loudspeaker-47ohm-more.data' using 1:($3/$2*Rknown) \ via Ls,Cs,Rs,Rnom fit abs(Rnom+Zl(x,Lhi)+Zpar(Rs,Zpar(Zl(x,Ls),Zc(x,Cs)))) \ '10W-loudspeaker-47ohm-more.data' using 1:($3/$2*Rknown) \ via Lhi

We then get the nice plot that the students saw in class:

That is where we ran out of time in class, and pretty much exactly where I wanted to get to today. When I got home this evening, though, I wanted to explore fitting the higher frequencies better, since the high-frequency fit is terrible. My approach was to add another RLC resonance peak around 25kHz, then try to optimize it. After I was done, I noticed that the standard error on the capacitor for the high-frequency resonance was bigger than 200%, so I tried eliminating it from the model, and I got just about as good a fit with one fewer parameter. The initial fit is poor, but the following script steps you through the successive fits (type return to gnuplot after each pause to go on to the next script):

set logscale x set xlabel "frequency [Hz]" unset key set logscale y set ylabel "impedance [ohms]" Rknown = 47.171 j=sqrt(-1) Zc(f,C) = 1/(j*2*pi*f*C) # f= frequency [Hz], C=cap [farads] Zl(f,L) = j*2*pi*f*L Zpar(z1,z2) = z1*z2/(z1+z2) divider(Zup,Zdown) = Zdown/(Zup+Zdown) Rnom=7.7 Lhi=4e-5 Ls=4e-3 Cs=5e-4 Rs=15.5 Lex=2e-4 Rex=30 set xrange [*:*] model(f) = abs(Rnom+Zl(f,Lhi)+Zpar(Rs,Zpar(Zl(f,Ls),Zc(f,Cs))) + Zpar(Rex,Zl(f,Lex))) fit [100:300] log(model(x)) \ '10W-loudspeaker-47ohm-more.data' using 1:(log($3/$2*Rknown)) \ via Ls,Cs,Rs plot '10W-loudspeaker-47ohm-more.data' using 1:($3/$2*Rknown), model(x) pause -1 "fitted Ls,Cs,Rs" fit [*:1000] log(model(x)) \ '10W-loudspeaker-47ohm-more.data' using 1:(log($3/$2*Rknown)) \ via Rnom, Rs plot '10W-loudspeaker-47ohm-more.data' using 1:($3/$2*Rknown), model(x) pause -1 "fitted Rs,Rnom" fit [1000:*] log(model(x))\ '10W-loudspeaker-47ohm-more.data' using 1:(log($3/$2*Rknown)) \ via Lhi plot '10W-loudspeaker-47ohm-more.data' using 1:($3/$2*Rknown), model(x) pause -1 "fitted Lhi" fit [1000:*] log(model(x)) \ '10W-loudspeaker-47ohm-more.data' using 1:(log($3/$2*Rknown)) \ via Rex, Lex plot '10W-loudspeaker-47ohm-more.data' using 1:($3/$2*Rknown), model(x) pause -1 "fitted Rex,Lex" fit [*:1000] log(model(x)) \ '10W-loudspeaker-47ohm-more.data' using 1:(log($3/$2*Rknown)) \ via Rnom, Rs, Ls, Cs plot '10W-loudspeaker-47ohm-more.data' using 1:($3/$2*Rknown), model(x) pause -1 "fitted Rnom,Rs,Ls,Cs" fit [1000:*] log(model(x))\ '10W-loudspeaker-47ohm-more.data' using 1:(log($3/$2*Rknown)) \ via Lhi plot '10W-loudspeaker-47ohm-more.data' using 1:($3/$2*Rknown), model(x) pause -1 "fitted Lhi" fit [100:300] log(model(x)) \ '10W-loudspeaker-47ohm-more.data' using 1:(log($3/$2*Rknown)) \ via Ls,Cs,Rs plot '10W-loudspeaker-47ohm-more.data' using 1:($3/$2*Rknown), model(x) pause -1 "fitted Ls,Cs,Rs, narrow range" fit [*:1000] log(model(x)) \ '10W-loudspeaker-47ohm-more.data' using 1:(log($3/$2*Rknown)) \ via Rnom, Rs, Ls, Cs plot '10W-loudspeaker-47ohm-more.data' using 1:($3/$2*Rknown), model(x) pause -1 "fitted Ls,Cs,Rs,Rnom with wider range" fit [*:*] log(model(x)) \ '10W-loudspeaker-47ohm-more.data' using 1:(log($3/$2*Rknown)) \ via Rex,Lex,Lhi plot '10W-loudspeaker-47ohm-more.data' using 1:($3/$2*Rknown), model(x) pause -1 "fitted Rex,Lex,Lhi" fit [*:*] log(model(x)) \ '10W-loudspeaker-47ohm-more.data' using 1:(log($3/$2*Rknown)) \ via Rnom,Rs,Ls,Cs plot '10W-loudspeaker-47ohm-more.data' using 1:($3/$2*Rknown), model(x) pause -1 "fitted Rnom,Rs,Ls,Cs"

I do not plan to teach the students about the “Q” of resonant circuits, since the only inductor they will deal with in the class is this loudspeaker, and the only time they need to model it as an inductor is for the class-D amplifier. That lab handout has been difficult for me to get started on—I hope to get it done during the coming long weekend, but I’m beginning to think that I should swap labs 7 and 8, so that the pressure-sensor instrumentation amplifier comes before the class-D power amp. I’ll try to write up both this weekend and see which makes more sense to do first.

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