Gas station without pumps

2016 September 20

Trick for encouraging cooperation

Filed under: Uncategorized — gasstationwithoutpumps @ 15:26
Tags: , ,

Adam Grant, a professor at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, provided an interesting technique for encouraging cooperation in his business-school classes (a culture noted for cut-throat competition between students):

How could I get students to help one another?

Four years ago, I found a way. The most difficult section of my final exam was multiple choice. I told the students that they could pick the one question about which they were most unsure, and write down the name of a classmate who might know the answer — the equivalent of a lifeline on the game show “Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?” If the classmate got it right, they would both earn the points.

Essentially, I was trying to build a collaborative culture with a reward system where one person’s success benefited someone else. It was a small offering — two points on a 120-point exam — but it made a big difference. More students started studying together in small groups, then the groups started pooling their knowledge.

You can read more about his attempts to encourage student cooperation in Why We Should Stop Grading Students on a Curve, published in the New York Times.

I don’t think I can use this exact technique, as none of the courses I teach involve exams—all are graded on the written reports that students write.  I could use it for homework, I suppose, but the overhead of checking other student’s responses might increase the turnaround time for homework grading.  I’m also already seeing more cooperation on the homework than I really want.

Furthermore, students quickly learn who the best student in the class is, and would just point to him or her, with no increase in useful cooperation.  So I think this technique would only work in student cultures that currently have a high degree of secretiveness and competition, not in already collaborative cultures.

2016 September 15

Research Report | Siemens Competition

Filed under: Uncategorized — gasstationwithoutpumps @ 12:23
Tags: , , , ,

I was reading the guidelines for a research report for the Siemens competition for high-school science projects.  Overall, the guidelines are good, but I have one quibble with their description of the first section:

Introduction: the “why” section (2-3 pages)

  • Start with a broad picture of the problem you have chosen to study and why it is interesting. Provide a brief review of pertinent scientific literature, describe what information is missing and how your work addresses this gap in the literature. Previous relevant publications and patents must be properly cited in the text of the Research Report and included in the Reference section of your report.
  • Describe the specific problem to be solved, the research question to be answered, the hypothesis(es) to be tested, or the product to be developed (if any). Provide a brief rationale for the research and why the work is important.

I believe that they are encouraging a common mistake: burying the lede. Theses, grant proposals, student projects, and papers should start with a direct statement of the research question or design goal of the project, then provide the “broad picture” and “why it is interesting”. I’m very tired of wading through a page or more of mush trying to find out what a student project (or published research paper) is.

Swapping the two points that they put in the first section would improve the quality immensely.

2016 August 11

Email to professors

Filed under: Uncategorized — gasstationwithoutpumps @ 10:37
Tags: , , , , , ,

This is the time of year when many semester-based colleges are starting classes again, so there are the usual spate of blog posts from faculty trying to orient the new students.  On perennial theme is on how to communicate with faculty, since so many students seem clueless about it.  (Two years ago, I plugged the book Say This, NOT That to your Professor, which I still recommend.)

Today, I happened to see the post How to Email Your Professor (without being annoying AF), in which Laura Portwood-Stacer provides a template and explanations:

10 Elements of an Effective, Non-Annoying Email

Here’s a template you can follow in constructing your email to a professor. Each element is explained further below.

Dear [1] Professor [2] Last-Name [3],

This is a line that recognizes our common humanity [4].

I’m in your Class Name, Section Number that meets on This Day [5]. This is the question I have or the help I need [6]. I’ve looked in the syllabus and at my notes from class and online and I asked someone else from the class [7], and I think This Is The Answer [8], but I’m still not sure. This is the action I would like you to take [9].

Signing off with a Thank You is always a good idea [10],
Favorite Student

Element #1: Salutation …

Element #2: Honorific 

Element #3: Name …

Element #4: Meaningless Nicety…

Element #5: Reminder of how they know you …

Element #6: The real reason for your email …

Elements #7 and 8: This is where you prove you’re a wonderful person …

Element #9: Super polite restatement of your request …

Element #10: Sign-off …

The hidden Element #11: The follow-up …

I don’t think that Ms. Portwood-Stacer is a professor, as her advice seems more appropriate for freelance writers than for students.  It isn’t bad advice, but I’d recommend something slightly different.

First, I don’t care much whether students include elements #1, #2, and #3, though I agree with her that “Hey!” is offensive. I don’t mind students using my first name, and I tell them so, but I agree that it is probably safer to use “Professor X” if you don’t know the person’s preferences.  In a formal business letter, the proper salutation is important, but in an e-mail without CCs it can be omitted.  (In an email with CCs, it is important to indicate who is being addressed.)

I disagree strongly about #4. I read a lot of email every day, and don’t want to have to wade through meaningless noise.  Skip the chitchat and get to the point—don’t waste my time.

Along the same lines, move #6 to the front. Ask your question or make your request directly, don’t bury the lede. After you’ve made a clear request, then provide the background information: who you are and what you’ve already done to try to get an answer. Make this more complete—if you are asking for something in my role as undergraduate director, for example, I need to know your major, your concentration, and which year’s catalog you are following.

The “thank you” at the end is nice, but a followup thank you message after my reply is appreciated more—the extra trouble taken makes the thanks seem more sincere.

One missed point—provide your full name and your nickname if you go by that in class right at the beginning of the message: This is Ridiculous Name Overly-Hyphenated, who goes by “Rid Overly” in class. I have to read my university e-mail with Google, which does an absolutely horrendous job of showing me who messages are from (there are probably 40 people it identifies to me as just “David”).

Use the official University e-mail address, as FERPA rules require me not to discuss your academic record with anyone but you (unless you’ve given explicit permission otherwise). We’ve had incidents of people pretending to be students to get information they had no right to, so I’m trying to be careful to respond only to the official email addresses. Remember to edit your campus directory entry, so that your email is associated with your real name, and not just your userid (I have no idea who “alkim345” is).

So rewriting her example for a classroom question:

This is Ridiculous Name Overly-Hyphenated, who goes by “Rid Overly” in Class Number. 

This is the question I have or the help I need.

I’ve looked in the syllabus and at my notes from class and online and I asked someone else from the class, and I think This Is The Answer, but I’m still not sure.

This is the action I would like you to take.

Thank you.

For an advising question:

This is Ridiculous Name Overly-Hyphenated, who goes by “Rid Overly”. 

This is the question I have or the help I need.

I’m a bioengineering major in the bioelectronics concentration, following the 2013–14 curriculum. I plan to graduate in Spring 2017.

I’ve looked at the curriculum charts, in the online catalog, and at the online advising web pages; I asked the professional advising staff; and I was directed to ask you.

This is the action I would like you to take.

Thank you.

If you need to meet with me, which is not needed for a lot of routine things, but is sometimes quite useful, add

May I come to your office hours next week at 3:15 p.m.?

Technically, you don’t need an appointment for open office hours, but those who have reserved slots ahead of time take priority over those who drop in. If you can’t make scheduled office hours and want to meet in person, say something like

I have a conflict during your office hours, but am free at the following five times …, would any of those times work for you?

2016 April 10

Transfer of learning

Filed under: Circuits course — gasstationwithoutpumps @ 09:58
Tags: , , , , ,
In a recent e-mail list discussion, being a math major was justified by the transferability of problem-solving skills from one domain (math) to others (banking, sales, and other jobs).  This justification for studying math is a popular one with mathematicians and math teachers.  One of the primary justifications for requiring geometry, for example, is that it teaches students how to prove things rigorously.​  The same case for transferable problem solving can be (and has been) made, perhaps even more strongly, for computer science and for engineering fields that do a lot of design work.
I was a math major (through and MS) and I got my PhD in computer science, and I certainly believed that the constant practice at problem solving made me better at solving certain classes of problems—ones with clear rules, not social problems or biological ones.
Education researchers have tried to measure this transfer effect, but so far have come up empty, with almost no indication of transfer except between very, very close domains.  I don’t know whether the problem is with the measurement techniques that the education researchers use, or whether (as they claim) transferability is mainly an illusion.  Perhaps it is just because I’m good at problem solving of a certain sort that I went into math and computer science, and that the learning I did there had no effect on my problem-solving skill, other than tuning it to particular domains (that is, perhaps the transferable skill was innate, at the learning reduced transfer, by focusing the skills in a specialized domain).
Two of the popular memes of education researchers, “transferability is an illusion” and “the growth mindset”, are almost in direct opposition, and I don’t know how to reconcile them.
One possibility is that few students actually attempt to learn the general problem-solving skills that math, CS, and engineering design are rich domains for.  Most are content to learn one tiny skill at a time, in complete isolation from other skills and ideas. Students who are particularly good at memory work often choose this route, memorizing pages of trigonometric identities, for example, rather than learning how to derive them at need from a few basics. If students don’t make an attempt to learn transferable skills, then they probably won’t.  This is roughly equivalent to claiming that most students have a fixed mindset with respect to transferable skills, and suggests that transferability is possible, even if it is not currently being learned.
Teaching and testing techniques are often designed to foster an isolation of ideas, focusing on one idea at a time to reduce student confusion. Unfortunately, transferable learning comes not from practice of ideas in isolation, but from learning to retrieve and combine ideas—from doing multi-step problems that are not scaffolded by the teacher.
“Scaffolding” is the process of providing the outline of a multi-step solution, on which students fill in the details—the theory is that showing them the big picture helps them find out how to do multi-step solutions themselves.  The big problem with this approach is that students can provide what looks like excellent work, without ever having done anything other than single-step work.  De-scaffolding is essential, so that students have to do multi-step work themselves, but often gets omitted (either by the teacher, or by students cheating a little on the assignments that remove the scaffolding and getting “hints”).
I find myself gradually increasing the scaffolding of the material in my textbook, so that a greater proportion of the students can do the work, but I worry that in doing so I’m not really helping them learn—just providing a crutch that keeps them from learning what I really want them to learn.  I don’t think I’ve gone too far in that direction yet, but it is a constant risk.
I’ve already seen students copying material from this blog as an “answer” to one of the problems, without understanding what they are doing—not being able to identify what the variables mean, for example. (I used different notation in class than I used in the corresponding blog post—a trivial change in the name of one variable.)  I’m trying to wean students off of “answer-getting” to finding methods of solution—the entire process of breaking problems into subproblems, defining the interfaces between subproblems, and solving the subproblems while respecting the interfaces.
I do require that the students put together a description of the entire solution to their main assignments—a design report that not only describes the final design, but how the various design decisions were made (what optimizations were done, what constraints dictated what part choices, and so forth).  This synthesis of the multi-step solution at least has the student aware of the scaffold, unlike the fill-in-the-blank sorts of lab report which makes the scaffold as invisible as possible to the student.
I also try very hard for each design problem to have multiple “correct” solutions, though some solutions are aesthetically more appealing than others.  This reduces the focus on “the right answer” and redirects students to finding out how to test their designs and justify their design decisions.
I have been encouraged by signs of problem-solving skills in several students in the course (both this year and in previous classes).  Often it is in areas where I had not set up the problem for the students.  One year, a student came up with a good method for keeping his resistor assortment organized and quickly accessible, for example.  This year, one pair of students used their wire strippers and blue tape as an impromptu lab stand for their thermometer and thermistor, to save the trouble of holding them.
The problems students set themselves often lead to more creative solutions than the ones set for the class as a whole—but how do you set up situations in which students are routinely identifying and solving problems that no one has presented to them?  I believe that the students who identify problems that no one has pointed out to them are the ones who become good engineers, but that attempts to teach others to have this skill are doomed by the very attempt to teach.  Capstone engineering classes are one attempt to get students the desired experience, but I think that in many cases they are too little, too late.

2015 September 29

What makes college alumni appreciate their college

Filed under: Uncategorized — gasstationwithoutpumps @ 09:26
Tags: , ,

I’ve just been reading the Gallup-Purdue Index 2015 Reportwhich analyzes a survey of about 30,000 college graduates to figure out whether they felt college was worth the cost, and what college experiences lead to higher satisfaction. Here are a few highlights:

  • Recent graduates who strongly agree with any of three items measuring supportive relationships with professors or mentors are almost twice as likely to strongly agree that their education was worth the cost. These relationships hold even when controlling for personality characteristics and other variables such as student loan debt and employment status that could also be related to graduates’ perceptions that college was worth it. 
  • If recent graduates strongly agree that they had any of three experiential learning opportunities—an internship related to their studies, active involvement in extracurricular activities or a project that took a semester or more to complete—their odds that they strongly agree that their education was worth the cost increase by 1.5 times.
  • However, whether recent graduates participated in a research project with a professor or faculty member is unrelated to their opinion that their education was worth the investment. This finding suggests that it is important to assess the quality of faculty members’ interactions with students—and the benefits students derived from them—rather than simply tracking participation in such projects. 

I found the third point above particularly worrisome, as we don’t have ways for really checking the quality of the interactions in things like thesis projects—we count on the goodwill of the faculty involved to make the experience a good one. We are also short on internships, though most of the BSoE majors now have multi-quarter projects for the capstones.

The “three items measuring supportive relationships with professors” were

  • My professors at [University Name] cared about me as a person
  • I had a mentor who encouraged me to pursue my goals.
  • I had at least one professor at [University Name] who made me excited about learning.

The first and third of those are hard to do anything about institutionally, and even on an individual level there is no general way to be successful, but we could be doing more about mentoring. One suggestion they had that may be worth following up:

… programs such as those that recruit alumni as mentors do not need to be costly, but they can make a powerful difference in more effectively engaging both students and alumni.

They did note that modest amounts of debt (up to about $25,000) did not seem to reduce alumni satisfaction, but larger amounts of debt seriously reduced whether alumni thought their college experience was worth the price.  There wasn’t much difference between public and private, non-profit colleges, but the for-profit colleges were much less appreciated by alumni. Also in-state or out-of-state public university did not seem to result in different distributions of satisfaction with the value of the education (despite the fairly large difference in price), and research universities followed the same distribution as public and non-profit private colleges.  Only the for-profits stood out as distinctly different (possibly related to the high debt load—I didn’t see an analysis of the for-profits that controlled for debt—maybe there were too few low-debt students at the for-profits to be statistically significant).

 

 

Next Page »

Blog at WordPress.com.

%d bloggers like this: